The Government has announced five ‘Integration Areas’ in which it will develop its integration strategy. These are local authorities that have demonstrated an interest in tackling integration issues. They are:
Blackburn with Darwen
These local authorities will see the following policy interventions and knowledge derived from these will later be applied elsewhere in the country:
- Improved provision of English language learning
- Monitoring of school segregation levels and efforts to ensure greater reflection of the wider residential area
- Information provided to recent immigrants to help them integrate
- Additional funding to job centres
- Focus on hate crime
- More evaluation research on what works in integration
The rest of this article provides integration profiles of each local authority, outlining some of the integration problems they have. Data are mostly from the census although references to school segregation are based on data derived from the school census.
- Blackburn with Darwen
Blackburn with Darwen has a population of 147,489 as of the 2011 census. 67 per cent are white British with the two largest minority groups being Indian (13 per cent) and Pakistani (12 per cent). It is the 43rd most ethnically diverse local authority in England and Wales.
Segregation levels are high, both residentially and in schools. According to data from the Integration Hub, it is the third most segregated local authority in England and Wales, when comparing the white British to all non-white British. Its schools are the second most segregated.
In 2011, more than one in 10 – 14 per cent – of those aged 16 or more cannot speak English either well or at all. That is 16,298 people.
Employment is not evenly distributed between white British and ethnic minorities (including white minorities). This will largely be down to Muslim women not working. 78 per cent of white British aged between 25 to 49 were in employment compared to 63 per cent of non-white British. The percentage point gap between the two is 15 which is the 17th highest local authority in England and Wales.
The city of Blackburn on our Index of Integration, was ranked 153rd out of 160 places, making it one of the least integrated.
The population of Bradford local authority was 522,452 in 2011. 64 per cent were white British with the largest minority group being Pakistanis at 20 per cent. It is the 40th most ethnically diverse place in England and Wales.
Like Blackburn with Darwen, segregation levels are high. In fact, school segregation in this local authority is the highest in England. Residential segregation is second only to Oldham in England and Wales.
16 per cent of the population aged 16 or more cannot speak English either well or at all.
Bradford has the second highest difference in employment rates between white British and non-white British at 21 percentage points. 82 per cent of white British aged 25 to 49 are in employment compared to 60 per cent of non-white British.
Bradford proper ranked 156 out of 160 places on our Integration Index.
Peterborough local authority had a population of 183,631 as of 2011. 71 per cent were white British. 11 per cent were ‘white other’ with a substantial Pakistani minority at 7 per cent. It is the 45 most ethnically diverse place in England and Wales.
Residential levels of segregation are moderate when comparing the white British to all other ethnic groups. The index of dissimilarity stands at 0.38 (this is a standard measure of segregation measuring the spread of two ethnic groups across neighbourhoods in a given place). However, it is much higher for the Pakistani population at 0.59. Levels of school segregation are also moderate.
17 per cent of those aged 16 or more cannot either speak English well or at all.
Employment differences between majority and all minorities are less pronounced. 82 per cent of white British aged 25 to 49 are in work compared to 75 per cent of all non-white British minorities.
The city of Peterborough was ranked 143 out of 160 on our Integration Index.
Walsall (local authority) at the last census had a population of 269,323. 77 per cent were white British; the largest minority groups were Indian and Pakistani (6 and 5 per cent respectively). It was the 59th most ethnically diverse local authority out of 348 at the last census.
Residential levels of segregation are strong with an index of dissimilarity of 0.48 for the white British. Levels are higher for Bangladeshis and Pakistanis (0.67 and 0.65 respectively). It is the 11th most segregated local authority in terms of education.
Just 8 per cent of those aged 16 or more could not speak English well or at all.
The difference between white British majority and non-white British minorities in access to employment stands at 8 percentage points.
Walsall was the 61st best integrated place in England and Wales out of 160, as measured by our Integration Index.
- Waltham Forest
Located in London, it is unsurprising that this is the most ethnically diverse of the five integration areas. Out of a population of 258,249, just 36 per cent were white British. The largest minority groups are ‘white other’ (15 per cent), Pakistani (10 per cent), black Caribbean (7 per cent), and black African (7 per cent). It is the 5th most diverse local authority in England and Wales.
Levels of segregation in London tend to be low although this does not necessarily imply greater levels of mixing in terms of friendship or marrying or partnering out. Residential segregation is low with an index of dissimilarity for the white British at 0.3. School segregation is moderate.
Need of English is high with 28 per cent of those aged 16 or more not being able to speak it either well or at all.
There is a difference in employment rates between white British and non-white British of 10 percentage points. This is a relatively high level, when compared to most other local authorities.
Waltham Forest ranked 118 out of 160 on our Integration Index.